With the onset of iciness, farm fires turn out to be rampant in northern Indian states, specifically in Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh. The issue of burning plants is likely one of the primary causes for deteriorating air high quality within the area right through iciness and contributes to the alarming air pollution ranges within the neighboring Delhi.

The perennial drawback is not just the reason for bother for the folks in Delhi, however over time it has additionally turned into a political factor as heads of state have interaction in confrontation over the once a year drawback.

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Why Farmers Burn Their Vegetation?

Wheat and Paddy are probably the most prevalent plants within the agricultural states, reminiscent of Punjab and Haryana. Probably the most causes for the stubble burning is attributed to the fast time to be had between rice harvesting and sowing of wheat.

The 2009 Punjab Preservation of Subsoil Act mandates that paddy transplantation date is fastened for June 20 which pushes forward the harvesting of rice crop, as an alternative of Would possibly, in order that a good portion of water is sourced from the rains within the monsoon. Then again, it leaves farmers with simply 20-25 days between two plants. A extend in sowing the wheat would adversely impacts the wheat crop. Subsequently, the fastest and absolute best resolution is to burn the crop residue.

Reviews recommend that 20 million tonnes of rice stubble are produced yearly in Punjab, out of which 80% is burnt at the farm.

Coverage Problems?

The Nationwide Inexperienced Tribunal (NGT) had banned crop residue burning within the states of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab in 2015. Burning crop residue could also be against the law beneath Phase 188 of the IPC and beneath the Air and Air pollution Regulate Act of 1981. Then again, executive’s implementation and test to curb stubble burning lacks power.

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The nationwide programme on crop diversification, which can have allowed for plantation of various plants rather then paddy, does no longer have transparent provisions on outreach actions to tell farmers about change crop choices.

The Perfect Court docket additionally stepped in the problem and in 2019 ordered some northern states to offer Rs 2,400 in line with acre to each farmer who didn’t burn stubble. Then again, the initiative didn’t turn out to be successful as states didn’t pay the farmers.

The Punjab and Haryana additionally began penalising farmers remaining yr for indulging in stubble burning. However, in spite of imposition of heavy fines, stubble burning circumstances persevered unabated. However professionals say that governments worry taking robust measures fearing that the coverage may irk farmers, who’re noticed as votebanks.

Loss of Inter-communication?

Closing month, the Aam Aadmi Celebration (AAP) which has its executive in Delhi, accused the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)-led executive in Uttar Pradesh and Haryana and Congress-led governments in Punjab and Rajasthan of failing to keep watch over stubble burning.

This isn’t the primary time that the inter-state drawback has turn out to be a political factor. Up to now couple of years too, the Delhi executive have blamed the Punjab and Haryana executive for the stubble burning.

This yr, Punjab executive in September introduced it might appoint 8,500 nodal officials for the present paddy rising villages, recognized as hotspots, the place paddy stubble used to be being historically placed on hearth. It mentioned that the instructions have already been issued to the Deputy Commissioners involved to offer particular consideration to the hotspot villages.

Haryana CM Manohar Lal Khattar mentioned that no stubble burning is being finished in Haryana. “Now we have given an incentive of Rs 1000 in line with acre to farmers on promoting paddy stubble,” he told reporters in Delhi.


Over the years, there have been many alternatives being explored to curb the menace. The Delhi government has been pressing for adoption of Pusa bio-decomposer, a microbial solution that can reportedly turn stubble into manure, urging the Centre to ask neighbouring states to distribute it for free among farmers. Gopal Rai, Delhi environment minister said that the state government will start spraying Pusa bio-decomposer from 5 October to prevent stubble burning.

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He added that the central government is yet to give time for a meeting on the decomposer and other pollution-related issues.

Another method of clearing agricultural fields is using a Turbo Happy Seeder (THS) machine, which can uproot the stubble and also sow seeds in the area cleared. The residual stubble can then be used as mulch for the field.

Officials have also come up with solutions by giving subsidies on resources used to cultivate stubble, for example, the happy seeder tractor or straw baler, which makes compact bales out of stubble and straws. However, such resources coming into mainstream agricultural practice will take their own time due to a lack of capital and awareness in farmers.

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